The Main Divisions Of Office Organisasation

Organisation is usually divided according to the size. i the nature of functions/activities,  ii the objectives,
The following departments may be found in an organisation, although it may vary from one organisation to another.
1. Manufacturing
2. Production
3. Administration
4. Legal
5. Factory
6. Postal
7. Establishment
8. Organisation and Methods
9. Marketing
10. Personnel
11. Sales

12. Filing
13. Training
14. Purchasing
15. Transport
16. Publicity and Advertising 22. Registry
17. Finance
18. Mailroom
19. Salaries and Wages
20. Graphic and Design
21. Accounts
22. Audit
23. Stores
24. Maintenance and Works
25. Physical planning
26. Estate Management

CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION
Centralisation :There are some general office services which have to be used by any department within an organisation, no matter how specialised that particular department within an organisation, no matter how specialized that particular department may be (Austin 1974:159). For example, the Design and Development Department, the Accounts Department, the Personnel Department- all these receive incoming mail and send out correspondence (mail handling); all must get their correspondence typed using shorthand, audio-typing methods (typing secretarial pools); all must have their copy letters filed (central failing); the copy and duplicating needs of each department must be met (reprography): computer and switched installations are invariably duplicate used by all the departments, as it would be absolutely impracticable may be conveniently centralized; and finally it is usually convenient to receive the equipment, staff and special accommodation required, stored and visitors at one central point, eg the office entrance, and subsequently route them to the particular department concerned (reception).
It has been argued that, in the interest of efficiency, all office work should be co-ordinated by one office manager, even though some parts of it may be done in departmental offices not under his control. In some organisations, the principal office manager is given full responsibility for all office, including those attached those office, providing such services as the departmental functional manager may to operative departments. He is required to organise, equip staff, and manage reasonably demand. Centralization may simply mean the physical concentration of all files and filing equipment in one central department; alternatively, it may permit the dispersal of files with control exercised from a central point. By establishing services departments, it becomes possible to benefit from all the advantages of centralization

ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALIZATION
a. Saving of space and document (no duplication in the individual departments).
b. Training of staff is easier- the whole system may be viewed – and a better understanding is gained.
c. Uniformity of method (which makes for simplicity) and standardization of equipment is easier to achieve.
d. Volume of work usually permit specialization (division of labour) with the attendant advantages of speed, accuracy of equipment is easier to achieve.
e. It follows from (d) above that specialist staff-experts in their fields, may be employed
f. Quicker results may be obtained, c.g. in a secretarial pool, the first available typist handles the job.
g.The work load can be spread more equally among the staff of a central unit than among departmental clerks.
h. It follows that absenteeism is a smaller problem when work is centralized.

DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRALIZATION
a The large volume of work implies a large department to cope with the work and any large unit necessitates the making of rules and regulations and rigid adherence to them.
b. Strict adherence to the rules may mean delays-“red tape”. The confidential nature of some work does not lend itself readily to a centralized system
C. Staff who do not wish to specialize may find that work which is all related to If the central unit is very large, an impersonal atmosphere may prevail one service is boring.

DECENTRALIZATION:
It is emphasized that the office is not an end in itself but a service. If the service is best given by decentralization of offices then they should be decentralized, but this does not mean that those offices must be managed independently, A specialist office manager can control a group of small offices in just the same way as a sales manager can control groups of salesmen operating away from head office over a wide area.
Under decentralization, each office division or department maintains its own filing system and equipment. The work is performed by one or more employees who may have other type of office work to do.

ADVANTAGES OF DECENTRALIZATION
a. As each department has its own independent filing system and equipment, perhaps only a single filing cabinet- the staff have easy access to the documents.
b. Time is saved, as there is no need to seek documents or folders from a central department
c.The filing system and classification adopted is the one best suited for each department.
d. Confidential materials are be filed are kept away from the majority of the employees

DISADVANTAGES OF DECENTRALIZATION
As each department has its filing cabinets, there is considerably duplication. This results increased capital cost and waste of space: moreover, as the filing equipment may vary from one department to another, the economics of bulk purchase cannot be effected.
b Time is wasted in each department by staff engaged in filing. In many cases, people are taken from more responsible work to attend to department filing for which they have no training, Duplication of documents often occur, as several departments require copies of outgoing letters for their respective files- often quite unnecessarily.
c. It brings about a confused filing system since in one department the filing methods may be entirely different from if not inconsistent with, those of some other department. Less efficient personnel do the filing job since such employees may also perform other office duties, сonice Activities that can be
Centralized and Decentralized:
Some of the office services or activities that can be centralized and/or decentralized are as follows:
(a) Mail handling
(b) Typing and Secretarial pools
(c) Filing
(d) Stationary and office stores
(e) Reprography
(0) Computer Services
(g) Switchboard and Reception Services
(h) Purchasing Services
(0) Production Services
0) Marketing Services
(k) Clerical work Services
Accounting and Cost Accounting Services, etc.
Summary
In this chapter, we have learnt that: there is the need for the records of business and office activities to be
well organised and preserved so that documents can be retrieved when needed. the office is defined as a room, place, building or part of building where work or activities of various nature are habitually carried out. the office services or office purposes can be classified into collecting,sorting, recording, processing, diffusing and protecting
business and safeguarding its assets; office organization involves the defining of the duties and responsibilities of the personnel employed in the office; there are a number of departments and divisions in an organization, although this varies according to size, nature of functions, objectives of business and availability of personnel and equipment and materials; the services of the office can either be centralized or decentralized.
Some of the office services that can be centralised or decentralized include mail handling, typing and secretarial pool, filing stationery and office stores, reprography, computer services, production services, clerical work services etc.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
“The office performs a service of records and communication’. Explain this statement by referring to the type of records maintained in the office and the necessity for adequate diffusion of information. organisation effective?
What are the major principles which contributed towards making an office

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the centralization of clerical

In an industry with which you are familiar, state what departments youexpect to find in the office organisation, assuming it to be a medium- seized manufacturing company. What disadvantages do you consider might arise from such departmentalisation and how do you suggest they should be overcome?
Summarise the functions of the office in obtaining and processing
information
To what extent may aspects of clerical work be centralised? What services may be centralised?
Why is the office essentially a servicing department?
Why must the importance of the office be generally recognised?
Under what conditions may office organisation be a specialist function?
The office has been described as the “power house”. Discuss.
List the responsibilities you consider the supervisor of a typing pool has:
a. to her employers
b. to her typists
What is the value to a large business organisation, of a centralized dictation system?
The eight departments in your firm each keep their own files under different systems. A central filing system has been suggested. Draw up lists, in two columns, setting out the arguments for and against a central filing system.
Give your opinion on the centralization of office services, with special reference to typing pools, including audio-typing.
Discuss the functions of the office in a business organisation like National Electric Power, Plc.
What is the responsibility of the following cadre of workers? the administrative staff
b. secretary clerical staff and maintenance workers.
Discuss the statement that office manager is an “information officer.
Carefully distinguish between (i) manufacturing and production (ii) Finance and Accounts (iii) Marketing and Sales and (iv) Research and Development and Organisation and methods.

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