Types of Advertising

Types of Advertising

Most advertising is designed to promote the patronage of a particular brand of product or service thereby creating brand images and symbolic appeals. This is particularly beneficial for organizations selling products and services that are difficult to differentiate on functional attributes. Some advertisements are however, intended to promote an idea or influence behavior such as encouraging people to avoid the illegal use of drugs, unprotected sx or cigarette smoking. These are known as public service advertisement (PSAs)

There are others which promote corporate bodies including non-governmental organization and are known as institutional advertisements. They seek to create a favorable impression of a business or institution without trying to sell a specific product or brand. The purpose is to build prestige and public respect. For non-profit organization such profit helps to support institution’s activities like encouraging people to donate blood or money for the work of the organization.

Advertising is also used to promote political parties and candidates for political offices and these have become a major component of electoral campaigns in democratic countries across the globe.
Advertising can be classified according to the scope o its geographical coverage, the type of goods or services, the style or mood of its presentation and by the nature of the action required on the part of the audience.

This classification is made up of
a. Local Advertising – It is carried in the local/community media. It is done by retailers and local merchants to build store traffic by encouraging consumers to shop at a particular store use a local service or patronize a particular establishment. Its emphasis is on specific patronage motives such as price, hours of operation, service, atmosphere, image, or merchandise assortment.

b. Regional Advertising – Small companies usually restrict their business to state or regional levels. Some organization prefers to limit their marketing efforts to specific regions until they are assured of success. Then they can spread their activities to wider horizons. Sometimes too large organizations undertake local or regional advertising in the process of pre-testing a consumer product prior to embarking on a national campaign. This type of advertising makes use of provincial or regional media

c. National Advertising – This is advertising done by large companies on a nationwide basis or in most state/regions of the country. The goal is usually to inform or remind consumers of the company or brand about its features, benefits, advantages, or uses and to create or reinforce its image so that consumers will be favorably dispose towards it for desired patronage.

d. International Advertising – This is a more global form of national advertising which appears in the international media. Some multinational conglomerates use the same copy in all their markets to advertise the global brands. Example include Coca-Cola, Sony, Canon, Omega and among others. Here, the multinational organization regards the world as their market and use certain universal appeals to communicate their brand messages in periodicals like Reader’s digest. National Geographic Time and Newsweek magazines and in syndicated broadcast media.

This is comprised of

(a) Mass Consumer Goods Advertising – The advertising of goods which often include impulsive buying such as foods, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, over the counter drugs etc. fall under this classification. A very substantial proportion of advertising in the mass media is about products and is directed to buyers who purchase them for their personal use or for their households.

(b) Consumer Durable Advertising – This applies to the advertising of product which call for rational planning before actual purchases can be made. These include such products as refrigerators, air conditional, cars, tractors, furniture etc.

(c) Vocational Advertising – This is an umbrella term for industrial, trade, professional and farm advertising.

(i). Industrial Advertising – This focuses on machinery, equipment and processes. It is used by a manufacturer to use the product to advertise in their manufacturing process. For example, when a manufacturer of wool and cotton advertises to textile manufacturers who should in turn use wool and cotton to manufacture textile products, the wool and cotton manufacturer is engaged in industrial advertising.
Incidentally, industrial advertising has not kept pace with the rate of industrialization in the country. This is perhaps likely due to the over dependence on the importation of industrial goods. Even the little that is assembled locally seems to have a ready market or is promoted through direct marketing or personal selling.

(ii). Farm Advertising – It is almost like industrial advertising. In this form of advertising, manufacturers advertise machinery like tractors and hatcheries or farm products such as fertilizers and poultry feeds for the manufacture or production of other farm products.

(iii). Trade Advertising – This is done by a manufacturer to persuade the distribution chain members such as wholesaler and retailers to stock only his own brand of particular product. It is also used to attract new retail outlets. Manufacturers also use trade advertisements to inform the outlets about various incentives schemes, price changes and product development, and to encourage them to push their products in the market.

(iv). Professional Advertising – This is engaged in by manufacturers in professional journals and aimed at professional bodies to convince them to buy their brands of particular products. Invariably, there are certain products for which the consumers may or may not necessarily be responsible for the buying decision. Such products are prescription pharmaceuticals and medical equipment as well as material, equipment and consumable in the fields of engineering and construction requiring expert recommendations of professionals before purchases are made fall under this category. Salesmen are usually used as follow unpin this form of advertising.


(d) Financial Advertising – Advertising for trading results such as half-year audited results and end-of-year results statutory notices of general meetings, banking regulations and practices fall under this category of advertising. In addition, it includes prospectuses for shares issues, records of investments in securities and other financial announcements. Choice of media depends on the target audience.

(e) Institutional Advertising – This is tool for public relations. It is corporate in nature and targeted at specific public of organization. Its focus is on favorable image building for corporate organization. The purpose is to build prestige and public respect. For non-profit organization, such advertising helps to support the institution’s activities like encouraging people to donate blood or money for the work of the organization.

(f) Public Service Advertising – This is composed of announcement, which lend support to charitable developmental and non-profit activities. Governments and non-profit organization engage in this form of advertising in which they promote desirable public conduct and public health. The contest ranges from campaigns against the abuse of the Naira, early marriages, human trafficking and HIV/AIDS to the promotion of immunization programs on polio and other communicable childhood diseases

(g) Educational Advertising – Education advertising often invite interested candidates to apply for admission into training institutes, the trades and professions. Sometimes, they invite their alumni to commemorate certain occasions and announce admission, matriculation or convocation ceremonies. These constitute educational advertisements

(h) Recruitment Advertising – This form of advertising aims to recruit staff into organization and may appear as classified or run-of-press (ROP) advertisements in newspapers and magazines, although other media such as radio and television are sometimes used. In Nigeria, some newspapers have adopted a system of carrying recruitment advertisement on specific days of the week.

In this category are –
(a) Soft-Sell Advertising – This is basically informative or educative and persuasive, simply emphasizing the attributes if the product or service.

(b) Hard-Sell Advertising – This is highly aggressive and competitive in nature. It is usually aimed at projecting the unique attributes of a given brand or service over competition.

(c) Advertorial – This was coined from the words; “Advertising” and “editorial”, it is used to propagate the opinion or view-points of the advertisers on matters they feel strongly about and to elaborately publicize certain special events which the media will not carry free as news

(d) Classified Advertisement – This are small advertisements also called “trade advertisement”, placed in newspapers etc. by person wishing to buy or sell something, employ somebody or find a job, announce a change of name or change a status or address etc. They are advertisement of a personal nature sold on the basis of words/lines and can be differentiated from the bigger run-of-press advertisement sold on column/inch basis. Usually with classified advertisements, the advertiser merely sends a manuscript which is composed by the publishers as against the bigger run-to-press types which require the advertiser to book for space according to his requirements and send camera ready artwork or separated positives for publication. Their equivalent in the broadcast media is the “personal-paid announcement”

(e) Display Advertising – Refers to an advertisement, with prominent display or illustration(s) of the product or service. The illustrations dominate other elements of the copy and may project various aspects of the product, packaging, special features, in-use situations etc. It comes in handy in image projection brands with unique properties

(f) Reminder Advertising – Usually of the soft-sell variety, it serves to keep in view or reinforce brand attributes in the consciousness of the consumers. This type of advertising is most useful when production level is low and when stock has ran out.

(g) Retail Advertising – The purpose of the retail advertiser is to tell people to buy ‘x’ or ‘y’ product at the store. His primary concern is not the brand but the existence of the product in his shop. Retail advertising often uses prices of goods to stimulate interest in the shop. Local media are generally used for this type of campaign. It is the staple of department stores, supermarkets, petrol stations, restaurants and insurance brokers.

(h) Broad Advertising – This fro of advertising can be subdivided into primary demand and selective demand advertising.

Primary Demand – If all producers of a particular product form an association and advertise as a body, their advertising is regarded as primary. It is also called co-operative advertising. The brand of the product is not specified; the emphasis is on the type of product. For example “Mike is good for you”. Drink milk for good health”.
Selective Demand – When a producer of a product advertises to say his brand of that particular product is the best, then he is engaged in selective demand advertising. Its aim is competition and the emphasis is on a brand of the product. Example, “Peak milk, the peak of the pack”. “Lectogen makes babies grow”.

(i) Personal advertisements – These are personal messages by individuals, families and committee of friends, which are mostly related to matrimonial matters, congratulatory messages, seasonal greetings, obituary, memorials and anniversaries among others. It is now the fad to find a clutter of such advertisement in the Nigerian mass media.

(j) Public Notices – These are advertisements aimed at notifying, often warning the public about specific issues. They sometimes come in the form of disclaimers or legal notices and may emanate from individual or organizations.

Under this classification may be found;
(a) Direct Action Advertising – This is also called Response Advertising, this category includes direct mails, coupons or retail announcements. It emphasis and persuades immediate purchase of the product or some quick response as an indication of the audience exposure to the advertisement.
(b) Indirect Action Advertising – The aim is to build favorable image of the brand and encourage purchase later as in the case of consumer durable

The type of media through which the message is exposed to the audience, advertising can be categorized as follows

(a) Above-the-line Advertising – This is also known as “theme” advertising whereby the formal or conventional media of mass communication such as the newspaper, magazine, outdoor signboard, transport vehicles, radio, television, cinema and the internet are employed to convey advertising messages to consumers.

(b) Below-the-Line Advertising – This is referred to any advertising which subtly solicits the sales of a brand. It is also called “Scheme” advertising or “promotion” and can mean anything from incentive bonus schemes form retailers to give-away key holders, clocks, tie-clips, T-shirts and lapel buttons, calendars, point of sales (purchase) items. Price cut offers, coupons, badges, and consumers/dealer competitions fall under this category.

(c) Direct Advertising – This includes all form of sales appeals mailed, delivered, or exhibited directly to the prospective buyer of an advertised product or service, without the use of a direct or conventional medium. Direct advertising may be divided into three broad classifications, namely, direct mail advertising, mil-order advertising and un-mailed advertising.

All forms of sale appeals (except mail-order appeals) that are sent through the mail are considered direct-mail advertising. The main function of direct-mail advertising is to familiarize prospective buyers with a product, its name, its manufacturer, its unique attributes and the product’s local distributors. The direct-mail appeal is also designed to support the sales activities of retailers by encouraging the continued patronage of both old and new customers.
When no personal selling is involved, other methods are needed to induce people to send in order by mail. These include special devises such as single-product folders or multi-product catalogues which are used in mail-order advertising. Mail-order promotions are designed to accomplish a complete selling job without sales people.

(d) Un-mailed direct Advertising – This includes all forms of indoor advertising displays and all printed sales appeals distributed from door to door, handed to customers in retail stores, include in packages and bundles of merchandise, or conveyed in some other manner directly to the recipient including press inserts

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